There are two usages of locals in zink.

  1. The parameters of functions are loaded as locals.
  2. local defined variables in functions.
fn paramslocal variables

Function Parameters

Let’s go through the add-two example:

    (func (param (;0;) i32) (param (;1;) i32) (result i32)
    (local.get 0)
    (local.get 1)

(param (;0;) i32) and (param (;1;) i32) will be pushed to the function locals with index 0 and index 1 with their type i32 recorded.

zinkc gets the defined local at index 0 when reaching (local.get 0), at index 1 for (local.get 1), for example, for (local.get 0), it will be translated to:

push1 0x00

for (local.get 1), that would be

push1 0x20

You may have problem why we PUSH1 0x20 while getting local at index 1, the answer is that this offset is calculated by the size of the parameters.

The CALLDATALOAD operator has stack input i and output data[i] while data[i] is a 32-byte value starting from the given offset of the calldata, so the minimal size of our types will be 32-byte, therefore, we align all types sizes to 32-byte in zinkc.

WARN: We don’t care about the originals offset of the parameters in WASM bcz we will serialize them into our locals and calculate the offsets on our own when need anyway.

typesizealigned size

It is a waste of resources but sadly this is also how EVM works ))

Local Variables

The locals variables will take the stack items right after the function parameters, for example:

(func (result i32)
  (local i32)
  i32.const 42
  local.set 0
  local.get 0)

In the program above, we set and get 42 to local variable 0 and returns it.

While compiling this function, zinkc will push local variable 0 on the stack with an initializing value 0 first, getting with dup and setting with swap and drop.

PUSH1 0x00       // initializing value 0 for local 0
PUSH1 0x28       // push value 42 on stack, the current stack is [0, 42]
SWAP1            // swap the value on the top of the stack to local 0 and
DROP             // drop the previous value of it for cleaning stack, `swapn`
                 // is calculated by `zinkc`. current stack: [42]
DUP1             // dup the value of local 0 and push it on the top of the
                 // stack, `dupn` is calculated by `zinkc`.
DROP             // clean the stack before returning results.

As we can see, the usages of get and set is verbose with swap and dup, it is for adapting any usages but not necessary for all of them, however, we will introduce optimizer for this in v0.4.0!